Dental Journal of Advance Studies

Register      Login

VOLUME 10 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Evaluation of Midkine Expression in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Cross-Sectional Study

Sangeeta Palaskar, Sumit R. Rongte, Rasika B. Pawar, Rucha Gore, Anirudha Bartake, Bindiya Narang

Keywords : oral squamous cell carcinoma, midkine, oral epithelial dysplasia

Citation Information : Palaskar S, Rongte SR, Pawar RB, Gore R, Bartake A, Narang B. Evaluation of Midkine Expression in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Cross-Sectional Study. 2022; 10 (1):46-50.

DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1736266

License: CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Published Online: 27-04-2022

Copyright Statement:  © 2022. Bhojia Dental College and Hospital affiliated to Himachal


Introduction Oral cancer accounts for 3% of all malignancies diagnosed worldwide annually. Midkine (MK) plays a role in oncogenesis and tumor progression, including cell migration, mitogenesis, antiapoptosis, and angiogenesis. Aim and Objective To study and compare MK expression in various grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methodology This is a cross-sectional study where 60 archival specimens of OSCC, OED, and control were taken for immunohistochemical examination. Antibody MK (A-9) SC-46701 mouse monoclonal (200µg/mL, Santacruze Biotechnology) was used for immunohistochemical staining. The stained sections were observed under the objective (100 ×) of research microscope (DM 1000 LED) with computer-assisted image analyzer (Leica Application Suit V-4.1). Quantitative analysis was done to count MK reactive cells in all groups. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis H test with posthoc Bonferroni's test for multiple group comparisons, and p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results MK expression was observed in OSCC and OED and was absent in control. The distribution of average percentage positivity was significantly higher in OED compared with OSCC and control. Statistically significant correlation was found between the size of the tumor and increased MK expression. Conclusion MK protein is overexpressed in OED and OSCC, and can be used as biological marker for early detection.

PDF Share
  1. Oral potentially malignant disorders: an overview of more than 20 entities. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospect 2014;8(01):6–14
  2. Update on oral epithelial dysplasia and progression to cancer. Head Neck Pathol 2007;1(01):61–66
  3. Midkine expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia. J Oral Pathol Med 2012;41(01):21–26
  4. Evaluation of expression of midkine in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with tumour angiogenesis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007;36(02): 159–164
  5. Midkine as a prognostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer 2008; 99(04):655–662
  6. Midkine expression is correlated with an adverse prognosis and is down-regulated by p53 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Oncol 2010;37(04):797–804
  7. Midkine: a novel prognostic biomarker for cancer. Cancers (Basel) 2010;2(02):624–641
  8. Expression of midkine in the early stage of carcinogenesis in human colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 1999;79 (01):179–184
  9. Midkine induces the transformation of NIH3T3 cells. Br J Cancer 1997;75(03):354–359
  10. Preoperative serum midkine concentration is a prognostic marker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Sci 2003;94(07):628–632
  11. Midkine in inflammation. Scientific World Journal 2011;11(11):2491–2505
  12. Expression of midkine and its clinical significance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Abstracts. Oral Oncol 2011;(47):S74–S156
  13. Measuring midkine: the utility of midkine as a biomarker in cancer and other diseases. Br J Pharmacol 2014;171 (12):2925–2939
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.