Dental Journal of Advance Studies

Register      Login

VOLUME 11 , ISSUE 1 ( January-April, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Demographic and Clinicopathological Associated Risk Factors in Oral Cancer in Rajasthan: A Retrospective Study

Himanshu Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Dinesh Yadav, Dinesh Kumar, Mamit Dogra, Jatinder Mohan Arora

Keywords : Gingivobuccal sulcus complex carcinoma, Oral cancer, Radiotherapy, Squamous cell carcinoma

Citation Information : Sharma H, Sharma S, Yadav D, Kumar D, Dogra M, Arora JM. Demographic and Clinicopathological Associated Risk Factors in Oral Cancer in Rajasthan: A Retrospective Study. 2023; 11 (1):22-25.

DOI: 10.5005/djas-11014-0007

License: CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Published Online: 27-06-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Objective: To ascertain the correlation between sociodemographic and clinic-pathological risk variables and oral cancer. Materials and methods: At Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Hospital (MGMCH) in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, a two-year cross-sectional survey was conducted. The Medical Records office provided medical records for 300 patients with oral cancer. Results: Males (63.3%), non-smokers (56.6%), betel quid chewers (96.6%), and residents of different sub-cities of Rajasthan made up the bulk of oral cancer cases. The majority of patients were in stages III (30%) and IV (45%) at the time of diagnosis. The most often used type of therapy was a surgical, radiation, or combination. The majority of the patients were still living (73%) at the time of this study. Conclusion: The gingivobuccal sulcus (GBS) complex malignancy was the most frequently involved oral cavity site (33%), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was the most commonly encountered oral cancer in the Rajasthan population (73.3%).

  1. Dantas TS, deBarros Silva PG, Sousa EF, et al. Influence of educational level, stage, and histological type on survival of oral cancer in a Brazilian population: A retrospective study of 10 years observation. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95(3):e2314. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002314.
  2. Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, et al. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68(6):394–424. DOI: 10.3322/caac.21492.
  3. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 2010;127(12):2893–2917. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.25516.
  4. Pathak KA, Gupta S, Talole S, et al. Advanced squamous cell carcinoma of lower gingivobuccal complex: Patterns of spread and failure. Head Neck 2005;27:597–602. DOI: 10.1002/hed.20195.
  5. Dikshit R, Gupta PC, Ramasundarahettige C, et al. Cancer mortality in India: A nationally representative survey. Lancet 2012;379(9828):1807–1816. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60358-4.
  6. Crăcană A, Şulea D, Nicolau A, et al. Risk factors in the emergence of oral cancer – Retrospective study. Roman J Oral Rehabil 2016;8(3):48–63. Available from:–-retrospective-study1.pdf.
  7. Cancer Research UK. Available at: (accessed on 1 Mar 2013).
  8. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v2.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available at (accessed on 1 Mar 2013)
  9. Mendez M, Carrard VC, Haas AN, et al. A 10-year study of specimens submitted to oral pathology laboratory analysis: Lesion occurrence and demographic features. Braz Oral Res 2012;26(3):235–241. DOI: 10.1590/s1806-83242012000300009.
  10. Gupta B, Johnson NW. Oral cancer: Indian pandemic. Br Dent J 2017;222(7):497. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2017.293.
  11. Mehrotra R, Singh M, Kumar D, et al. Age specific incidence rate and pathological spectrum of oral cancer in Allahabad. Indian J Med Sci 2003;57(9):400–404. PMID: 14515030.
  12. Honorato J, Rebelo MS, Dias FL, et al. Gender differences in prognostic factors for oral cancer. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2015;44(10):1205–1211. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2015.04.015.
  13. Warnakulasuriya S. Living with oral cancer: Epidemiology with particular reference to prevalence and life-style changes that influence survival. Oral Oncol 2010;46(6):407–410. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2010.02.015.
  14. Chen YK, Huang HC, Lin LM, et al. Primary oral squamous cell carcinoma: An analysis of 703 cases in southern Taiwan. Oral Oncol 1999;35(2):173–179. DOI: 10.1016/s1368-8375(98)00101-8.
  15. Horowitz AM, Nourjah PA. Factors associated with having oral cancer examinations among US adults 40 years of age or older. J Public Health Dent 1996;56(6):331–335. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.1996.tb02460.x.
  16. Khammissa RA, Meer S, Lemmer J, et al. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a South African sample: Race/ethnicity, age, gender, and degree of histopathological differentiation. J Cancer Res Ther 2014;10(4):908–914. DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.138100.
  17. Marur S, Forastiere AA. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Update on epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc 2016;91(3):386–396. DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.12.017.
  18. Delclos L, Lindberg RD, Fletcher GH. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and floor of mouth. Evaluation of interstitial radium therapy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1976;126(2):223–228. DOI: 10.2214/ajr.126.2.223.
  19. Huang T-Y, Hsu L-P, Wen Y-H, et al. Predictors of locoregional recurrence in early stage oral cavity cancer with free surgical margins. Oral Oncol 2010;46(1):49–55. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2009.10.011.
  20. Genden EM, Ferlito A, Silver CE, et al. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2010;267(7):1001–1017. DOI: 10.1007/s00405-010-1206-2.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.