Dental Journal of Advance Studies

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Volume 11, Number 3, September-December 2023
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EDITORIAL

Vimal K Sikri

From Ancient Vedic Wisdom to Modern Dentistry: The Evolution and Impact of Artificial Intelligence in Dentistry

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:11] [Number:3] [Pages:1] [Pages No:iv - iv]

   DOI: 10.5005/djas-11-3-iv  |  Open Access | 

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Original Article

Avijit Avasthi, Tarun Kalra, Geeta Kalra, Tanvi Ohri, Prashansa Sharma, Nikita Suri

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Quality of Life: An Online Transverse Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:11] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:97 - 101]

Keywords: Coronavirus disease-2019, Mental health, Quality of Life

   DOI: 10.5005/djas-11014-0022  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) on quality of life of people. Materials and methods: An online close-ended questionnaire called 6-item COVID-19 impact on quality of life (COV19-QoL) scale v1.5 was used to assess the quality of life perceived by subjects since past 7 days because of COVID-19. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed. An independent t-test was performed to compare the differences in scores between the two groups (males and females) and the ANOVA test compared the differences in scores in relation to the educational status of subjects. Results: About 43.2% rated that they felt more tense than before, with 36.8% agreeing upon being depressed and slightly near one-third (30.3%) perceived deterioration of their physical health and mental health because of COVID-19. However, only a quarter of subjects, 26.5%, considered that their personal safety was at risk. The marital status and level of literacy of respondents did not exert a significant influence on the quality of life affected due to COVID-19. However, there was statistically significant difference on physical health of male subjects (p < 0.04) when compared with female subjects. Conclusion: COVID-19, therefore, changed the quality of life by exploring several parameters such as physical health, mental health, personal safety, and fluctuations in mood.

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Original Article

Shefali Singla, Sharique Rehan, Manjula Mehta, Sharmila Dhanday

Comparative Analysis of Microbial Leakage in Implant Recess of Three Different Internal Implant Abutment Connections: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:11] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:102 - 105]

Keywords: Bacterial infiltration, Dental implants, Implant abutment connection, Implant recess, Internal hex, Microbial leakage

   DOI: 10.5005/djas-11014-0023  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Objective/Introduction: Bacterial infiltration at implant abutment junction is a potential risk for soft tissue inflammation and bone loss around the implant. Potential colonization of microgap is related to precision of fit at the mating interfaces of implant and abutment and is dependent on structural geometry of implant abutment connection. Considering the limited information regarding differences in microbial penetration at the junction in implants with degree of taper in internal connections, this study conducted comparative analysis of microbial seal of three different implant abutment connections—1.5 mm internal hex (IH), 4° tapered, and 11° conical hex (CH) implants. Materials and methods: Three study groups with 18 implant abutment assemblies in each, included 1.5 mm IH (BioHorizon®), 4° taper (4° CH) internal conical connection (Ankylos®), and 11° taper (11°CH) connection (Neobiotech® Active) implants. Each assembly was suspended in Escherichia coli as well as Enterococcus faecalis suspension in brain heart infusion (BHI) separately and incubated at 37°C for 3 days. Wash from respective implant internal recess was assessed for microbial contamination. Results: Internal hex group showed significantly higher E. coli (44.4%) and E. faecalis (50.0%) leakage than 4°CH and 11°CH groups. The difference in microbial leakage in 4°CH (11.1%) and 11°CH (16.7%) for both the study microbes was statistically insignificant (p = 0.630), thus partially accepting the null hypothesis. Conclusion: The type of connection significantly influences microbial leakage at implant abutment junction with internal connection more conducive to bacterial infiltrations than conical connection implants. However, degree of taper of conical connection does not have a significant effect on bacterial permeability of the implant abutment connection.

82

Original Article

Preeti Gupta, Vinay Dua, Mitasha Sachdeva, Sonal Bansal

Comparison and Relationship of Upper Airway Width and Maxillary Intermolar Width in Hypodivergent and Hyperdivergent Skeletal Class II Subjects

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:11] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:106 - 110]

Keywords: Frankfurt mandibular plane angle, Intermolar width, Upper airway width

   DOI: 10.5005/djas-11014-0024  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Dental arch width and facial form are vital aspects in deciding the outcome of orthodontic treatment. Facial morphology is the result of each person's genotype and phenotypic expression. The vertical skeletal relationship is regularly defined by the Frankfurt mandibular plane angle (FMA). A “high-angle” (hyperdivergent) pattern, where the angle is 30° or more, and “low-angle” (hypodivergent) where the angle is 20° or less. The growth and development of the craniofacial complex is affected by the growth of nasal cavities, nasopharyngeal space as well as oropharyngeal space. Objective: Comparison and relationship of upper airway width and maxillary intermolar width (IMW) in hypodivergent and hyperdivergent skeletal Class II subjects. Materials and methods: Study casts and lateral cephalograms of 50 skeletal class II patients divided into 2 groups hypodivergent and hyperdivergent, 25 subjects in each group based on FMA, having no past history of an orthodontic procedure or airway-related surgical procedure were involved. Measurement of upper airway space was recorded on the cephalograms as described by McNamara Jr. Measurement of maxillary IMW was taken on the study casts with the help of a digital vernier caliper. Results: A significant difference was found between IMW and upper airway width in the hyperdivergent and hypodivergent groups. A negative correlation was found between FMA and IMW in both the hypodivergent and hyperdivergent groups. A positive correlation was detected between FMA and upper airway width in the hypodivergent group. There was a weak negative correlation found between upper airway width and IMW. Conclusion: A relationship exists between the maxillary arch dimension and upper airway width with vertical facial morphology. Hyperdivergent growth had a constricted airway and IMW than hypodivergent growth.

77

Original Article

Alice Lyngdoh, Sougaijam Vijay Singh, Lomtu Ronrang, Nathaniel Kharumnuid, Roshnee Bhattacharya

Oral Manifestations in COVID-19 Patients: A Prevalence Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:11] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:111 - 115]

Keywords: COVID-19, Oral lesions, Oral symptoms

   DOI: 10.5005/djas-11014-0025  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Introduction: Coronavirus disease has manifestations in multiple systems with the respiratory system being predominantly the first system to be affected, it is important to know whether coronavirus disease has primary oral manifestations or whether the oral manifestations were due to an overwhelming response to the disease. Understanding its oral manifestations will lead to early diagnosis and proper isolation that may reduce the spread and severity of the disease. Materials and methods: The study participants were selected among recovered COVID-19 patients. The participants were interviewed through preset questionnaires through telephonic conversation. Oral examination was done only for patients who had negative RTPCR testing from COVID-19 and were still being admitted to the hospital for full recovery. Results: There were 200 participants, 119 were females and 81 were males. There were oral lesions, such as ulcers, thrush, mucositis, or a combination thereof, observed in 14 patients. Among the 116 patients, oral symptoms such as ageusia were most prominent, with oral lesions and other oral issues being more prevalent in symptomatic individuals and those with systemic conditions compared to asymptomatic and healthy individuals. Conclusion: The oral manifestations among COVID-19 patients were statistically insignificant due to limited data. However, it was observed that taste alteration is most common and may be associated with COVID-19. The oral lesions are highly likely to be secondary manifestations of the disease.

94

Original Article

Deepankar Bhatnagar, Harjoy Khatria

Evaluation of Alveolar Bone Thickness Around the Incisors in Various Skeletal Patterns: A Cephalometric Study

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:11] [Number:3] [Pages:8] [Pages No:116 - 123]

Keywords: Alveolar bone width, Anteroposterior relationship, Dental compensations, Incisor inclination

   DOI: 10.5005/djas-11014-0027  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Context: The major motivation for patients to get orthodontic treatment is the unesthetic placement of incisors. Therefore, correction of these anterior teeth is of prime importance along with their position in the alveolar housing during treatment planning. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the alveolar bone thickness around the incisors in various skeletal patterns. Materials and methodology: A total of 128 lateral cephalograms of patients visiting the department were traced and divided into four groups (n = 32) based on the sagittal relationship including class I with a bimaxillary protrusion, class II division 1, class II division 2, and class III. The total root length, incisor inclinations, and labial and palatal alveolar bone at the middle and apex of maxillary and mandibular central incisors were measured and subject to statistical analysis using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS), version 25, software. Results: According to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests, there were significant differences between groups in alveolar bone widths of maxillary central incisors at apex and middle. While no significant difference was seen in the case of the middle of mandibular central incisor roots, the alveolar bone width was found to be significant in intergroup comparison at the apex. The inclination of incisors was also significantly different between the groups. Conclusion: The current study showed the dental compensation by central incisors in various sagittal patterns. The palatal bone in maxillary incisors was thinner in class I and class II division 1 due to proclination while the labial bone was thinner in incisors of class II division 2 and mandibular incisors in class III.

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REVIEW ARTICLE

Harshita Goyal, Abhishek Nagpal, Jaiveer Singh Yadav, Omkar Shetty, Bhupender Yadav, Reshu Madan

Prosthetic Treatment Modalities on Zygomatic Implants: A Review

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:11] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:124 - 127]

Keywords: Bar, Hybrid denture, Locator, Overdenture, Telescopic attachments, Zygomatic implant

   DOI: 10.5005/djas-11014-0026  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Severely atrophic maxilla, often accompanied by sinus pneum, poses significant challenges in dental implant treatment. This condition is characterized by a substantial reduction in bone volume and can complicate implant placement and prosthetic rehabilitation. For resorbed maxilla with sinus pneumatization and in partially or completely resected maxilla, zygomatic implants have come up as a predictable treatment modality, thus reducing the risk of complex surgical procedures/grafting procedures. There are different prosthetic options available for rehabilitation similar to conventional implants. This article aims to review the available prosthetic options and their outcomes of prostheses supported by zygomatic implants.

89

REVIEW ARTICLE

Jessica Garewal, Ripin Garewal, Simran Girdhar

Forensic Odontology: An Important Tool in Mass Disasters and Crime Investigations

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:11] [Number:3] [Pages:3] [Pages No:128 - 130]

Keywords: Bite mark, Demirjian method, Forensic odontology, Gustafson's method, Palatal rugae, Premortem

   DOI: 10.5005/djas-11014-0029  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Forensic odontology is a branch of dentistry that is concerned with the investigation and proper handling of dental evidences and demonstration of dental findings in the interest of justice. This article summarizes the latest progress in the field of forensic odontology, which highlights the role of the dentist in the investigation of dental remains, human remains as well as crime investigation. Dental age estimation, forensic data from soft tissues of the oral cavity, clinical features of forensic odontology have been discussed.

74

REVIEW ARTICLE

Seba Sara Geevarghese, Anu Girdhar, Navneet Kaur Mann, Samuel Prasad Cherian

Precision Smiles 2.0: Revolutionizing Prosthodontics with Artificial Intelligence Ingenuity

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:11] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:131 - 134]

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Augmented/virtual reality, CAD-CAM, Implants, Maxillofacial prosthetics, 3D Printing

   DOI: 10.5005/djas-11014-0028  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing prosthodontics, transforming various aspects from treatment planning to implant procedures and maxillofacial prosthetics. This article is a review that emphasizes the current applications of AI in prosthodontics, highlighting its benefits in efficiency, accuracy, and patient satisfaction. Artificial intelligence has the potential to significantly improve the quality and efficiency of prosthodontic care, paving the way for a future of personalized and predictable dentistry. Applications of AI from treatment planning and digital impression acquisition to implant procedures and maxillofacial prosthetics fabrication. As AI improves efficiency, accuracy, and patient satisfaction it enhances productivity and reduces the time involved in fabricating the prosthesis through different software. There are many challenges associated with widespread AI adoption, such as cost and training requirements. The article concludes by stressing the need to embrace AI's potential and facilitate its seamless integration into prosthodontic practice, paving the way for a future of predictable, safe, and efficient dentistry.

86

REVIEW ARTICLE

Sukhpal Kaur, Tejveer Singh, Amandeep Kainth, Manbir Kainth, Amritpal Kaur, Sankalp Bansal

DNA Profiling in Forensic Dentistry: A Review

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:11] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:135 - 139]

Keywords: Dentin, DNA profiling, Fingerprints, Forensic dentistry, Teeth

   DOI: 10.5005/djas-11014-0030  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

In forensic investigations commonly the individuals are identified using various methods, such as visual identification method by a family member, personal information, medical information, footprint records, dental records, clothing, and fingerprints. But these methods need antemortem data for comparison. Also in some circumstances, the body of the victim is damaged or disfigured. In both these situations, conventional methods of identification are not useful. DNA profiling plays a valuable role for the identification of victim in such conditions. DNA can be collected from several body tissues and organs of the body and also from human teeth. As tooth is a sealed box-like structure, DNA remains preserved for longer time even under adverse conditions. The quantity of DNA extracted from teeth depends on various factors; these factors include the type of tooth, age, and sex of an individual. This article outlines various methods of DNA profiling and also methods of DNA extraction from human teeth.

97

CASE REPORT

Asusa Cicilia Loli, Tarun Kalra, Manjit Kumar, Ajay Bansal, Gouri Khullar

Prosthodontic Rehabilitation of a Completely Edentulous Arch with an Abnormal Jaw Relation: A Case Report

[Year:2023] [Month:September-December] [Volume:11] [Number:3] [Pages:5] [Pages No:140 - 144]

Keywords: Abnormal jaw relation, Case report, Cross arch arrangement, Occlusal scheme

   DOI: 10.5005/djas-11014-0017  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Cross arch teeth arrangement method is long being used for the management of abnormal jaw relation. The jaw relationship with broad mandibular arch may require a cross-bite occlusion of part or all of the artificial teeth, depending upon the extent of the discrepancies in their sizes. The cross-bite arrangement of anatomic posterior teeth is one in which the maxillary teeth are placed lingual to the buccal cusps of the mandibular teeth. There are many variations of the cross-bite relationship. The arrangement of artificial teeth is an art based on the biomechanical factors governing the ultimate success of the dentures. This article discusses prosthodontic rehabilitation of a broader posterior ridge of mandible with normal anterior relation with morphologic teeth management.

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